cog apprenticeship

May 15, 2006

Various methods, within a framework of Cognitive
Apprenticeship, are proposed by Collins, Brown and
Newman(1989)
Modelling:
• Expert carries out task; student observes and builds
conceptual model of processes
• Requires externalization of internal processes
Coaching
• observing students while they carry out a task; offer
hints,
• scaffolding, feedback, modelling, reminders and new
tasks to bring closer to expert performance
Scaffolding and Fading
• supports teaching provides to help carry out task
• teaching does part that student cannot manage
• gradually removes support from student

Cognitive Apprenticeship
Articulation
any method of getting student to articulate their
knowledge, reasoning, problem-solving processes e.g.
enquiry teaching
teacher leads articulation; encourage student to
articulate as solve problem; student assumes critic or
monitor role
Reflection
enables student to compare own problem-solving
processes with those of expert, another student, and,
ultimately, internal cognitive model
techniques include expert's postmortem as model;
recorders to reproduce student/expert performance
Exploration
pushing students into problem solving alone; forcing
them to explore and set and revise their own goals.

 Characteristics of Ideal Learning
Environment:
CONTENT:
* Domain Knowledge * Heuristic Strategies
* Control Strategies * Learning Strategies
METHODS:
* Modelling * Coaching
* Scaffolding & fading * Articulation
* Reflection * Exploration
SEQUENCE:
* Increasing complexity
* Increasing diversity
* Global before local skills
SOCIOLOGY:
* Situated Learning * Exploiting co-operation
* Culture of expert practice * Exploiting competition

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